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BULLETIN OF 

THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 

OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, APRIL, 1949 



No. 16 




BRONZE IMAGE OF SIVA AS NATARAJA 
South Indian (Tamil), about 12th century 



This Bulletin is published by the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, 
and printed in Canada by the University of Toronto Press 



BRONZE FIGURE OF SIVA AS NATARAjA (LORD OF THE DANCE) 



South Indian, possibly 12th century. 
Total height 40.5 in.," width 34.5 in. 
The outer circle (tiruvdsi) is edged 
with thirty-five flames, and in a deep 
groove on this circle are ninety-six 
stars; the circle emerges from a mon- 
ster head on either side of its base. 
Siva wears a single garment at the 
waist with girdle and pendent loops, 
a sash with a twisted end tipped with 
four flame-points, and the sacred 
thread. His ornaments consist of a 
fillet, a collar, bracelets, armlets, 
bangles, foot ornaments; finger, 
thumb and toe rings; a male and a 
female earring with long pendant on 
the shoulders and a cobra wristlet. 
Seven streams of water issue from 



each side of his hair, and in them are 
six jewels, six stars and seven leaves. 
The reverse side of the aureole is flat. 
Siva has at the back seven short locks 
of hair with twisted ends. At the 
back of the god's head is a circular 
stud-like projection 2 in. in length, 
with a top 3.5 in. in diameter, having 
eleven pierced and stylized flower- 
petal motives enclosed within a circle 
and radiating from a central boss 
from which depend three tassels. The 
surface of the metal is smooth, with 
a medium green patination. It was 
cast by the cire perdue (waste wax) 
process and probably moulded in a 
single piece. 
Museum number S.143; purchased. 



THE DANCE OF LIFE 

(Reprinted with slight changes from the Illustrated London News, 
December 24, 1938.) 



The bronze figure of the Dancing Siva 
{Nataraja: Lord of the Dance) in 
the Royal Ontario Museum of Archae- 
ology is a remarkably fine and 
apparently early specimen, dating 
perhaps from the twelfth century. 
The figure is a product of Tamil art, 
made by that warlike Dravidian race 
which Drought a large part of India 
under its rule, and ravaged the Budd- 
hist cities of Ceylon. The Chola 
Dynasty (A.D. 850-1100) witnessed 
the greatest period of Tamil ascend- 
ency, and its kings were particularly 
devoted to the service of Nataraja. 
Chidambaram, a village in the South 
Arcot region, has been devoted to 
the Nataraja cult for much more than 
a thousand years. To the Sivaite it 
is the centre of the universe; Tillai, 
the home of the Lord of Existence. 
In the tenth century its temple was 



covered with gold by one of the 
Chola kings. 

The Dancing Siva appears in var- 
ious forms, named according to the 
special character of the dance. The 
dance of Siva which is usually repre- 
sented is called either Ananda tdndava 
(The Dance of Joy), or Sabhd-pati 
(The Lord of the Divine Congrega- 
tion), the latter having reference to 
the assemblage of all gods, goddesses 
and saints to watch the performance 
of the cosmic dance. Nataraja figures 
are always in the dancing attitude, 
and were made more for processional 
use than for temples. The usual tem- 
ple image of Siva is the linga pillar, 
a symbol of the formless and all- 
pervading Divine Being, unlimited 
by time or space; the universal ani- 
mating spirit of the world which finds 
expression in all living forms. 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



Siva is usually considered to be a 
god of destruction only; the third 
person of the Hindu Trinity. The 
Tamil follower of the Sivaite cult 
would consider this concept lacking 
in proper appreciation of Siva's other 
attributes; those of creation and the 
preservation of life. The Sivaite sees 
destruction as the necessary end of 
every cycle, both universal and in- 
dividual. It is manifest in all nature 
and all history, and to deny its inevit- 
ability in the human realm would be 
self-deception, but equally inevitable 
are creation and the continuance of 
existence. The cycle of life is a per- 
fect circle or wheel, not only human 
in its expression but also leading the 
spirit to new incarnations in a variety 
of forms. Thus the follower of Siva 
will admit that he is a deity of destruc- 
tion, but maintains that he is also 
the lord of birth and life's continu- 
ance. The Tamil concept of Siva is 
that of Supreme Lord ; the other gods 
shine only with reflected light and 
exist by his sufferance. Siva is a 
deity of numerous attributes, and is 
worshipped under many sportive 
forms as well as more serious ones, 
but the real essence of the god 
is supposedly above expression; 
formless, uncreate, impossible of com- 
prehension by the human mind or 
representation by art. To the Hindu, 
all the circumstances of life are sent 
by the gods; to the Tamil they are 
the work of the master of the gods, 
Siva himself; sometimes worshipped 
as an ash-smeared ascetic, and at 
other times as the Divine Dancer of 
the Assembly of Gods. All blessings, 
all troubles; good fortune and bad 
fortune; prosperity and tribulation; 
all come from some attitude or dis- 
position of Siva. The Sivaite faith 
has a cosmogonic significance, and 
the god himself assumes the character 
of a great impersonal natural force, 
all-knowing in its comprehension, and 
all-powerful in its capacity: the es- 
sence of both Being and non-Being. 

Siva has many dances, but his 
cosmic dance far excels the others 
in its symbolism and depth of mean- 



ing. The most logical interpretation 
of it, which also accords with tradi- 
tion, seems to be the measured release 
of divine energy in creating, preserv- 
ing and also destroying all forms of 
life. Only the rhythmic expression 
of this demiurgic force prevents it 
from being immediately destructive 
to all life; by the cosmic dance it is 
applied to the preservation of the 
natural order. 

The true character of the dance is 
strikingly shown by the beautiful 
bronze figure here reproduced. Nata- 
raja is shown with four arms; one 
uplifted, with the hand in the gesture 
of Divine Reassurance (abhaya 
mudra) ; another inclined sideways in 
the "elephant's trunk" gesture, point- 
ing to the upraised left foot, symbol 
of human salvation; a third hand 
holds a fire-ball and a fourth the 
hand-drum. The god wears a tall 
crown of peacock feathers, in which 
appear the crescent moon, the head 
of a cobra, and the skull of Brahma's 
fifth head — cut off by Siva as a 
punishment for misrepresentation. 
Siva has a third eye, his eye of de- 
struction, in the middle of his forehead. 
Seven streams of water issue from his 
hair, and among them is Ganga, 
goddess of the sacred river, which is 
one of the seven. In his ears Siva 
wears both male and female ear-rings. 
He is clothed in a single brief garment, 
and is adorned with bracelets, bangles, 
a fillet and a collar; also finger, thumb 
and toe rings. Within a splendid 
flame-tipped aureole (tiriivasi) he 
stands upon the demon Apasmara, 
supported upon a double lotus pedes- 
tal. On one wrist is a serpent, the 
usual ornament of the god. Another 
serpent in the hand of the demon 
below is said to be the corresponding 
ornament from another arm, dropped 
during the rapid dance. 

The figure is instinct with motion; 
its graceful, measured movement is 
the rhythm of life, the timeless dance 
of being. There is motion in all 
creation: the plants and the zodiac, 
the procession of the years, months 
and days, all dance to their own pecu- 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



liar music, but the dance of Siva 
contains all things and supports all 
things; without this master rhythm 
the small harmonies of life would soon 
cease. Within it are all birth and 
generation, all fruition and harvest, 
all death and non-being, all liberation 
and ultimate bliss. No hatred is there, 
nor desire for destruction, but merely 
the fulfilment of natural law. It is 
celestial music that Siva dances to: 
we are told that Brahma, Vishnu and 
the other gods play together upon 
heavenly instruments. 

This divine harmony of sound and 
motion is linked with the recurrence 
of day and night, seed-time, harvest 
and the rotation of the seasons, the 
quickening of the unborn child, the 
flowing of the ocean's tides and the 
sap of trees. All things which have 
place within the cycles of time and 
being come as a result of Siva's dance 
of universal equilibrium. Were the 
dance to cease, no one could be sure 
that the appointed order of the sea- 
sons would be preserved, for winter 
and spring are steps in the dance. 
The divine dancer is the maintainer 
of the whole cycle of natural law. 
One can attribute to Siva neither love 
nor hate; neither pain, pleasure nor 
desire: He is above all things, for 
He comprehends all things. Nataraja 
treads upon the world, and His tower- 
ing peacock crown seems to touch the 
Milky Way. The flaming circle of 
the universe can barely contain Him. 
The earth is His footstool, the stars 
are His jewels, the gods are His 
servants. With one lordly foot He 
spurns the crawling forces of darkness 
and futility. Creation moves by the 
beat of His drum: fear is banished 
by His uplifted hand; His cleansing 
fire makes all things new; liberation 
is His noble gift. One of His eyes is 
the sun, another is the moon, His 
third eye is fire itself, and with it He 
reduced Kama, the God of Love, to 
a pile of ashes. His vision is both of 
Time and the Timeless, from before 
the days of earth's beginning to be- 
yond the last of man's race. Before 
Time was, He was; when He so 



pleases, Time and all its works shall 
crumble to a little dust, and His smile 
shall not change. Life and death; 
birth, existence and destruction, fol- 
lowed eternally by repose and reinte- 
gration; the cycles of worlds, of na- 
tions and of men; all to Him are 
faint music which blends with the 
divine harmonies to which He dances. 
To the eye of Siva nothing is great 
and nothing is small ; nothing is merry 
and nothing is sad. He is a god and 
He is all the gods; He is mercy and 
He is destruction. All is born, all 
lives, all dies; every aspect of nature 
proclaims His attributes. Passion- 
less, alone and unique; creating but 
uncreated; destroying but Himself 
eternal; Siva is the embodiment of 
cyclical law and the overlord of all 
life. Nothing He could do to man 
would be an injustice; no praise man 
could offer Him would be sufficient. 

The appearance of the river goddess 
Ganga refers to the legend that once 
the River Ganges flowed only in the 
heavens. King Bhagiratha under- 
went many penances in order that 
the celestial river might flow down 
and purify the earth, but since the 
earth could not bear its weight, Siva 
mercifully consented to receive the 
waters in his hair. For a thousand 
years they swirled and eddied in his 
flowing locks, but when Siva thought 
the pride of the arrogant river had 
been sufficiently humbled, he let it 
come forth in seven small streams, 
one of which is the Ganges today. 
The flowing streams represented in 
the image are generally considered 
as being Siva's hair, but close exam- 
ination shows their watery character. 

The Sivaite faith attains to mystic- 
ism of a high and pure order, sometimes 
difficult for a Western mind to follow 
because of its unfamiliar symbols, but 
which is a testimony to the funda- 
mental oneness of religion. When 
expressed in iconography, it has pro- 
duced many forms: sportive, serious 
and terrible. Nataraja is the most 
beautiful and gracious of them all; 
certainly its equal is not known in the 
history of symbolism. F. St.G. S. 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




SIVA AS NATARAJA 
Reverse view 




FIG. 1. — CHINESE STONE SUN-DIAL; FORMER HAN PERIOD. GIVEN TO 
THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM BY BISHOP WHITE. MUSEUM NO. NB. 4099. 



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FIG. 2. 



CENTIMETERS 

-THE DIAGRAM ON THE DIAL FACE. 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



AN ANCIENT CHINESE SUN-DIAL 



This stone sun-dial, which Chinese 
and Western scholars accept as un- 
questionably of the third century B.C. 
was found in an excavation near Old 
Lo-yang, Honan, in 1932. It was 
brought to the writer by a native of 
the locality who had had direct parti- 
cipation in its excavation from an 
ancient tomb. He did not know what 
it was, neither did any of the Chinese 
scholars who saw it, for no one had 
seen such an object before. The late 
Dr. Liu Fu, a brilliant Chinese scholar 
and archaeologist, saw an ink-squeeze 
of the dial and recognized it as similar 
to one which had been in Viceroy 
Tuan Fang's collection. He began 
investigating, and published the 
results of his study in a monograph 
called "A sun-dial of the Western 
Han period" (206 B.C.-A.D. 25). 
Before his study was completed he 



came across evidence of the existence 
of a fragment of a third dial, which 
had been found together with pottery 
measures said to be of the Ch'in 
Dynasty (221-206 B.C.). The form 
of script of the figures on the three 
dials is identical, and is the style 
which was common to the Ch'in 
Dynasty (220 B.C-206 B.C.) and the 
Western or Former Han Dynastv 
(206 B.C.-A.D. 25); all were found 
in the area approximating Longitude 
112° and Latitude 35°N-41°N. The 
fact of three dials of the same kind 
being found in proximity, points to 
a normal type for common use in 
that area some time about 200 B.C. 
The object is a flat rectangular slab 
of grey limestone, about eleven inches 
square and an inch thick, with a 
diagram on one surface only. The 
gnomon is missing and there is no 




FIG. 3. — INK-SQUEEZE OF DESIGN ON THE BACK OF A BRONZE MIRROR, 

SHOWING T.L.V. EMBLEMS. PROBABLY OF THE SECOND CENTURY B.C. 

DIAMETER 5 INCHES. 



BULLETIN 1 OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




mmimMW 



*&*?*$*%**! 






FIG. 4. — BRONZE MIRROR OF PROBABLY THE THIRD CENTURY B.C. NOW IN 
THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM. BESIDES THE T.L.V. DESIGNS THERE ARE 
CLOUD-LIKE GROUPINGS WHICH MAY BE CONSTELLATIONS, FOR THEY ARE 
NOT ARRANGED SYMETRICALLY. TWO DRAGONS ENCIRCLE THE CENTRAL 
KNOB WHICH MAY BE ACCEPTED AS DENOTING THE SUN-DIAL GNOMON. AN 
INSCRIPTION OF EIGHT CHARACTERS, EXPRESSING A LUCKY WISH, FILLS THE 

SIDES OF THE CENTRAL SQUARE. DIAMETER 5^ INCHES. 

FIG. 5. — SECTION OF STONE FRIEZE FROM HSIAO-T'ANG SHAN SHRINE, 

SHANTUNG, DATING ABOUT A.D. 128. THE TWO MEN APPEAR TO BE PLAYING 

CHESS, AND THE DESIGN ON THE PEDESTAL OF THE TABLE IS SIMILAR TO 

THAT OF THE SUN-DIAL, AND OF THE T.L.V. MIRROR. 

8 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



base, though it is assumed the dial 
would be tilted on a base. A circle 
about ten inches in diameter is gradu- 
ated for 100 sectins with radii lines 
numbers 1 to 69 incised from the 
circle to the centre, number 35 being 
due north if the dial should be tilted 
from the south, or due south if a 
double gnomon should be used. Dr. 
Liu states that the diameter of this 
circle would probably be the length 
of the foot measure at the time the 
dial was made, and gives this as addi- 
tional evidence for a Western Han 
attribution. 

Another point to be noticed is the 
fact that as far back as the eleventh 
century B.C. time was measured in 
China by the clepsydra or water-clock. 
In the Western Han this was gradu- 
ated metrically to one hundred k'e or 
sections for night and day, and would 
thus correspond to the sections of the 
sun-dial, whereas later on it was 
graduated to ninety-six k'e which 
made twelve (two-hour) periods for 
night and day, in what was called 
the shih Men cycle of time. When 
and why this superseded the hundred- 
section system of the old diurnal cycle 
seems not to be known, but it retained 
the k'e as the name for a section. 

The circles of the dial, the segmen- 
tal lines, the numerals, and various 



other lines, are marked with the 
greatest precision (Fig. 2). These 
various lines are of great astronomical 
interest, and it seems they also link 
the dial to astrological uses and cere- 
monies, as may be seen in the so- 
called "T L V" mirrors which date 
from the third century B.C., and the 
diagrams on the stone frescoes of 
Hsiao-t'ang Shan (A.D. 128) (Fig. 4) 
and Wu Liang Ssu (A.D. 149) (Fig. 6). 
The mirror gets its name from the T 
which is attached to the central square 
design of the dial, the L which adjoins 
the circumference of the circle on the 
four sides, and the V which is found 
in the square corners of the dial 
(Fig. 3). 

One of the earliest T L V mirrors 
is that from Shou Chou (Fig. 4) 
which would date about the middle 
of the third century B.C. This par- 
ticular mirror contains a sun conno- 
tation in the figures of two dragons 
around the central knob. A bronze 
lamp of Han times, in the form of 
the Fu-sang or sun-tree with two 
dragons at its base trying to swallow 
the sun-tree, is now in the Royal 
Ontario Museum. (See Illustrated 
London News, Jan. 11, 1936, pp. 
60-61). This legendary depiction is 
found nowadays in the pair of dragons 
chasing the sun pearl. In the mirror 




FIG. 6. — INK-SQUEEZE OF SECTION OF STONE FRIEZE OF Wu LlANG SSU, 
SHANTUNG, DATED A.D. 149. THE SETTING IS THAT OF A SACRIFICIAL CERE- 
MONY, WITH A SQUARE OBJECT IN THE CENTRE, HAVING THE LINES BUT 
NOT THE CIRCLES OF THE SUN-DIAL. 



9 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



the central knob around which the 
two dragons move would take the 
place of the central gnomon of the 
dial. 

Periodic sacrifices, such as those of 
the solstices, were the common prac- 
tice from very early times, and the 
dial would be a most natural object 
in this setting, for the T L lines on the 
dial seem to point to a solstitial con- 
nection (cp. Figs. 2 and 3). 

The astronomical significance of 
this sun-dial has been dealt with by 
Dr. Peter M. Mill man in the Journal 
of the Royal Astronomical Society of 
Canada, November, 1938, and it is 
through the courtesy of the Royal 
Astronomical Society of Canada that 
we have been permitted to use the illus- 



trations accompanying this article. 
At the conclusion of his discussion 

on the sun-dial Dr. Millman states 

the following: 

"It is evident that in this dial 
we have a practical astronomical 
instrument of a standard design, 
constructed with surprising accur- 
acy considering the early date: and 
there seems little doubt, in view of 
the evidence which Bishop White 
has brought forward, that though 
the original scientific use of the 
accurate design on the dial face 
was gradually lost, the design itself 
remained for some centuries in a 
modified form as an integral part 
of ceremonial and astrological 
svmbolism." W. C. W. 




FIG. 7. — THE CHINESE SUN-DIAL WITH A RECONSTRUCTION OF A FORM OF 

GNOMON SUGGESTED BY DR. PETER M. MILLMAN OF THE 

DAVID DUNLAP OBSERVATORY 



LO 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 





Fig. 1 



A 'DANGERS AVERTED' MEDAL 



Some years ago the Museum acquired 
a gold Elizabethan 'Dangers Averted' 
medal at auction at Sotheby's {Cata- 
logue of Sale, June 12th, 1930, no. 73). 
It is illustrated in Fig. 1. The obverse 
shows a bust portrait of the Queen, 
almost frontal, with the inscription 

DITIOR IN TOTO NON ALTER CIRCULUS 

orbe: the reverse, a bay-tree on an 
island, uninjured by lightning and 
winds, and non ipsa pericula tan- 
gunt. The medal measures 1.625 by 
1.75 inches; there are four rings for 
suspension. 

This is one of a group of very rare 
medals attributed to the period imme- 
diately following the defeat of the 
Spanish Armada. None of the inscrip- 
tions, however, actually mentions any 
current event. That on the obverse 
of our medal (No other circle in the 
world more rich) refers to the firm 
establishment of Elizabeth's Crown 
and Throne, and that on the reverse 
(Not even dangers threaten it) to 
the dangers that had indeed threat- 
ened her Crown throughout most of 
the reign, and had culminated in the 
Spanish Armada. But in 1589 the 
Armada had been defeated; Mary 



Queen of Scots was dead, and her 
son James VI conciliated; in France 
the Duke of Guise was dead: there 
was good ground for the choice of 
words. The late Sir George Hill 
queried the use of 'Circulus' — why 
refer to the Crown and not the por- 
trait? — but he quotes Waller's verses 
'On a Girdle' as showing a parallel 
use of words in English {Medals of the 
Renaissance, 1920, 157 & 174). 

It was my Heaven's extremest sphere, 
The pale which held that lovely deer; 
My joy, my grief, my hope, my love 
Did all within that circle move. 

A narrow compass, and yet there 
Dwelt all that's good and all that's fair; 
Give me but what this ribband bound, 
Take all the rest the sun goes round. 

The presence of the bay-tree refers to 
its supposed virtues of immunity 
from lightning, and of protecting the 
places where it was; "Neither falling 
seeknes, neither devel will infect or 
hurt one in that place whereas a 
Bay-tree is" (Lupton). 

The medals referred to are of three 
types. The first is that now repre- 
sented in the Museum {Medallic Illus- 



11 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



trations, 1885 edn. i, 154, no. 129; 1904 
edn., pi. XI, 9) ; three other examples 
of it are known — two in the British 
Museum, in gold and silver respect- 
ively, and one in bronze gilt in the 
Hunter Collection in the University 
of Glasgow. The second is larger, 
and shows on the obverse a frontal 
bust of Elizabeth with Crown, 
Sceptre and Orb; the inscription, and 
the whole design of the reverse is the 
same as on the first type {ibid. 1885, 
i, 154-5, no. 130-1; 1904, pi. XI, 
10-11). The third has on the obverse 
a bust of the Queen in profile to the 
left, and Elizabeth d g anglie f et 
hi reg; the reverse shows an ark 
riding a stormy sea, and saevas 

TRANQUILLA PER UNDAS {ibid. 1885, 

148, no. 119; 1904, pi. XI, 2). The 
second, like the first, is known in 
gold, silver and bronze gilt; the third 
in silver only. Almost all the exam- 



ples have loops for suspension, and 
one retains the chain: they are 
generally supposed to have been 
struck as Naval rewards. 

It was suggested in an article in the 
British Numismatic Journal, iv, 1907, 
that these medals are the work of 
Nicholas Hilliard. There can be no 
proof of this, but it seems extremely 
likely. In addition to his work as a 
miniaturist, Hilliard was 'Limner and 
Goldsmith' to the Queen at this time, 
and for many years besides. He 
designed and executed Elizabeth's 
Second Great Seal in 1584, and is 
probably responsible for the 'Armada 
Jewel' given by the Queen to Sir 
Thomas Heneage, and now in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum; this 
also bears, on the front of the lid, 
the inscription saevas tranquilla 
per undas, and is in many points 
similar to the medals. 

G. B. 



THE MOHAWK SILVER 



By the generous cooperation of the 
Council of the Six Nations Indians 
at Brantford, Ontario, the Museum 
has been able to place on exhibition 
for a nine-month period the four 
magnificent pieces of Communion 
silver owned by the Council. These 
form part of one of the sets of Com- 
munion silver sent by Queen Anne in 
1712 to churches in North America 
in which she took a special interest. 
One of these sets was sent to Trinity 
Church, New York, another to 
St. Paul's Church, Halifax, and others 
to "Her Indian Chappels of the Onon- 
dawgas and Mohawks." The Mo- 
hawks were at that time dwelling in 
those territories known as the Mo- 
hawk Valley, and tribal tradition says 
that the Mohawk silver was first used 
in the old Chapel near Johnstown, 
N.Y., on October 5th, 1714. After 
the American War of Independence 
the Iroquois, who were staunch 
Loyalists, came to Canada, bringing 



the silver with them. Those who 
settled at Brantford under the leader- 
ship of Chief Joseph Brant, retained 
four pieces of Queen Anne's gift, 
consisting of a flagon (fig. 1), an 
offertory plate (fig. 2), and a chalice 
and paten (fig. 3). Those who settled 
at Deseronto retained two pieces of 
the set, which apparently was a double 
one. 

These pieces are all engraved with 
the royal arms of Queen Anne, and 
with the following inscription "Gift 
of Her Majesty Ann by the Grace of 
God of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland, and of Her Plantations in 
North America, Queen, to Her Indian 
Chappel of the Mohawks." They 
bear the mark of the silversmith 
Frances Garthorne, the two Britannia 
Quality Marks — the figure of 
Britannia and the lion's head erased, 
and the London date letter for 1711-12 
(fig. 4). 

F. St.G. S. 



12 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 




FIG. 1. — FLAGON 



FIG. 2 — OFFERTORY PLATE 



THE MOHAWK SILVER 







**& 



< M 




FIG. 3 — CHALICE AND PATEN 



FIG. 4 — HALLMARKS ON PATEN 



13 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



A SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY 
ENGLISH MIRROR 

A fine seventeenth-century English 
mirror has recently been acquired for 
the Museum, through the Members' 
Fund (Fig. 1). The mirror is enclosed 
in a small inset in the front of a 
standing table frame, measuring 14 x 
12 inches. The front of the frame is 
covered with white satin embroidered 
in coloured silks with flowers and 
other motifs from the repertoire of 
the seventeenth-century English em- 
broideress. On the opening door panels 
of the inset, which measure 8 1/8 x 
6 1/8 inches, are two figures, perhaps 
the owner and her husband, wearing 
the costume of the 1640's. The silk 
ground is dotted with sequins and 
the edges are bound with metal braid ; 
the backs of the door panels are 
covered with the original pinkish-red 
silk stamped in a small diaper design ; 
the back of the frame is covered with 
red velvet. The mirror is of excellent 




fig. 1 



workmanship, and apart from the 
discoloration of the glass, and some 
fading of the silk, is in original con- 
dition. G. B. 



NOTABLE RECENT ACQUISITIONS BY THE MUSEUM 



A small exhibition entitled "Some 
Notable Recent Accessions, 1947-49" 
is on view in the Special Exhibition 
Gallery during the month of May. 
Its purpose is to keep the public in 
touch with the progress of the Mu- 
seum's collections, and all depart- 
ments of the Museum are represented 
in it. There is space here to mention 
only a very few of the exhibits; the 
most notable are a collection of glass 
and porcelain, bequeathed in the will 
of the late Miss H. A. Boomer; an 
Egyptian 6th Dynasty statuette from 
the Harvard University and Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts Excavations at 
Giza; a group of North American 
Indian Chief medals, given to the 
Museum by Mr. H. R. Jackman, M.P., 
and dating from the reign of George II 
to that of Queen Victoria; and the 
torso of a Roman statue copying a 
Greek type of Aphrodite drying her 
hair, given by Mrs. F. A. Shelley. 



The Charles I mirror mentioned above 
is also exhibited. 

A most important acquisition, 
placed in the Chinese Fresco Gallery, 
is a Chinese Buddhist Votive Stele of 
Northern Shansi grey sandstone, 
probably from Yun Kang. This has 
an inscription dated to October 17th, 
A.D. 523; it was published in the 
Burlington Magazine (October, 1937). 
It has been presented to the Museum 
by the Flavelle Fund. Together with 
it is exhibited the side of a Chinese 
Mortuary Bed or coffin platform, in 
grey limestone, and dated to the 
6th century A.D. This has been lent 
to the Museum by Mr. C. T. Loo, 
and is exhibited in the hope that a 
benefactor may appear who would 
enable the Museum to acquire it. 

It is intended to mention this ma- 
terial at greater length in future 
numbers of the Bulletin. 

G. B. 



1 1 



BULLETIN OF THE ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



THE MUSEUM'S NEW STATUS 



With the passing of The Royal Ontario 
Museum Act, 1947, the Museum has 
acquired a new status vis-a-vis the 
University of Toronto and the people 
of Ontario at large. The old Cor- 
poration known as 'The Royal On- 
tario Museum' has been wound up, 
and the Museum itself, its contents, 
and all its properties and rights are 
now vested in the University Board 
of Governors. A new Museum Board 
has been constituted, and is appointed 
by the University Board of Governors. 
The Chancellor, the President, and 
the Chairman of the latter Board are 
ex officio members of the new Museum 
Board; of the remaining nine mem- 
bers, four are also members of the 
University Board, while the remaining 
five are not. One of the latter group 
is appointed on the nomination of 
the Principal of Queen's University, 
and one on that of the Principal of 
the University of Western Ontario. 
The occasion has been taken to 
re-define the purposes for which the 



Museum exists. So far as the Mu- 
seum of Archaeology is concerned, 
these are defined as 

(i) the collection and exhibition of 
objects of any kind to illus- 
trate and to make known to 
the public the his- 
tory of man in all the ages; 

(ii) the collection and exhibition 
of objects, documents and 
books of any kind to illustrate 
and to make known to the 
public the history of On- 
tario and Canada; 

(iii) the promotion of teaching, 
research and publication in 

the history of Ontario 

and Canada; and 

(iv) the co-operation with manu- 
facturers or industry in On- 
tario for the purpose of 
improving or expanding indus- 
trial design. 



MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS 



The following Museum publications are in 
print, and may be obtained from the Museum: 

Outline Guide to the Royal Ontario Museum 
(Section III deals with the Museum of 
Archaeology), price 50 cents. 

Outline Guide to the East Asiatic Section, 
price 15 cents. 

Outline Guide to the Middle American Col- 
lections, price 15 cents. 

Excavating Ontario History, by Margaret M. 
Thomson, published by the Division of 
Extension, price 30 cents. 

Chinese Court Costumes, by Helen E. Fernald, 
price $1. 



The following past numbers of the Bulletin 
of the Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology — 
7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15. 
Palestine Ancient and Modern. A Guide to 

the Palestinian Collections, 1949, price 

$1.50 (by post $2). 

In active preparation are: 
Spinning and Weaving (a much enlarged re- 
issue of Fibres, Spindles, and Spinning 
Wheels, published by the Museum, but 
now out of print). 

The Sketches of Paul Kane. 

It is also proposed to issue a new edition of 
Museum Bulletin No. 12 (dealing with 
the largest of the Chinese frescoes), and 
to bind together Nos. 12, 13 and 14. 



15 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 
OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



Director — Professor G. Brett, M.C., 
M.A.Oxon. 

Associate Director and Keeper of the 
Department of Ethnography — Pro- 
fessor T. F. McIlwraith, M.A. 
Cantab., F.R.A.I., F.R.S.C. 

Keeper of the East Asiatic Department — 
Professor H. E. Fernald, A. B. Mt. 
Holyoke 

Keeper of the Greek and Roman Depart- 
ment — Professor J. W. Graham, 
M.A.Ac, Ph.D. J.H.U. 

Keeper of the Modern European Depart- 
ment — F. St. G. Spendlove. 

Keeper of the Near Eastern Depart- 
ment — Professor the Rev. R. J. 
Williams, M.A., B.D. 

Keeper of the Textile Department — 
Mrs. G. Brett. 



THE MUSEUM BOARD 
Robert Fennell, Esq., K.C., Chairman. 

The Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey, C.H., M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. 

Sidney E. Smith, K.C., M.A., LL.D., 

President of the University of Toronto. 

Col. W. E. Phillips, C.B.E., LL.D., Chair- 
man of the University Board of Governors. 

Mrs. H. D. Warren, C.B.E., LL.D. 

The Hon. and Rev. Canon H. J. Cody, 
D.D., C.M.G., LL.D. 

Sigmund Samuel, LL.D. 

Henry Borden, Esq., K.C., C.M.G. 

Edward Johnson, C.B.E., LL.D., Mus. Doc. 

Beverley Matthews, Esq., K.C., C.B.E. 

Professor M. B. Baker, Queen's University. 

Dean F. Landon, University of Western 
Ontario. 

Miss Helen Reynar, Secretary-Treasurer of 
the Museum and Secretary to the Board. 

MEMBERS OF THE MUSEUM 

Benefactors (Life Membership), who 

contribute $250 

Sustaining Members 100 

Patron 50 

Annual (individual or husband and wife) 10 
Junior (under 21) 5 



PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERS 

All Members receive copies of the Annual 
Reports and of the Bulletin of the Royal 
Ontario Museum of Archaeology. 

All Members receive invitations to Special 
Lectures, Receptions and Previews of Exhibi- 
tions held by the Museum Board and by the 
Museum of Archaeology. 

All Members receive information and folders 
about the Extension Courses organized by the 
Royal Ontario Museum of Archaeology, and 
Benefactors have the privilege of free atten- 
dance at these courses. The children of all 
Members may have free membership in the 
Children's Saturday Morning Club and in the 
Summer Museum Club. 

Benefactors may arrange to have a member 
of the staff as a guide to the Museum galleries. 

All Members have free admission for them- 
selves, their families and non-resident friends, 
at all times when the Museum is open. 



ADMISSION 

The Museum is open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
on all weekdays except Mondays, Christmas 
Day, and the forenoon of New Year's Day. 
It is open from 2 to 5 p.m. on Sundays. 

Admission is free on Sundays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Saturdays, and on all public 
holidays. On Wednesdays and Fridays 
admission is fifteen cents. 

University students are admitted free on 
presentation of their registration cards. 

All classes from schools, art students, and 
study groups are admitted free. 

Members of the Museum and those who 
hold complimentary tickets, and Staff Mem- 
bers and Members of other Museums are 
admitted free at all authorized hours on 
presentation of their cards of membership. 



PUBLICATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS 

Publications of the Museum may be ordered 
at the Sales Desk, and prints of photographs 
of Museum objects from the Main Office. 
Orders by post should be sent to the Secretary 
of the Museum. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



10